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 Vera Ignatyevna Mukhina (born 1 July 1889 in Riga; died 6 October 1953 in Moscow) was a prominent Soviet sculptor.

Postcards from SovietEraMuseum (exclusive):

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SovietEraMuseum exclusive! May be we have the biggest collection of Soviet space pins at the world. This is a first part. Soviet space programs with international crew.

Key countries: Crew from Mongolia, DDR, Cuba, India, Romania, Chezh Republic, Bulgaria

Key figures: Cosmomaut Romanenko, Cosmonaut Mendez, Cosmonaut Gubarev, Cosmonaut Strekalov and others.

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The secret submarine base in a small Crimean town of Balaclava is one of the largest military installations that have been abandoned after the collapse of the USSR. A complex, containing ammunition (including nuclear) and performed repairs of submarines , is located at the Tavros mountain since 1961. The dock base could shelter up to 14 submarines of different classes, and the whole complex was able to withstand a direct hit of a nuclear bomb with the capacity of up to 100 kT. Abandoned in 1993 the site was pillaged for scrap metal by local residents.

Soviet times (1960-s’):

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SovietEraMuseum present a series of articles “Destroyed Plants”. Part I. Stakhanov Coke Plant (Voroshilovgrad region, Ukrainian SSR)

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In January 26, 1924, five days after Lenin’s death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, as well as cruiser Aurora – a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy.

Leningrad in 1960-s’. Panoramic b/w photos. Exclusive by SovietEraMuseum:

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Combat elements of the Ground Forces were organized into combined arms and tank armies. A combined arms army included three motorized rifle divisions and a tank division. A tank army had three tank divisions and one motorized rifle division. In the late 1980s, the Ground Forces began to field corps that were more than twice the size of a single division. In 1989 the Soviet Union had 150 motorized rifle and 52 tank divisions . A motorized rifle division had 12,000 soldiers organized into three motorized rifle regiments, a tank regiment, an artillery regiment, an air defense regiment, surfaceto -surface missile and antitank battalions, and supporting chemical, engineer, signal, reconnaissance, and rear services companies. A typical tank division had 10,000 soldiers organized into three tank regiments and one motorized rifle regiment. In 1989 the Ground Forces also included eight brigades of air assault, or air-mobile, units that conducted helicopter landing operations. The Soviet Ground Forces viewed the tank as their primary weapon. In 1989 the Tank Troops had five types of main battle tanks, including the T-54/55, T-62, T-64, T-72, and T-80. The greater part of the total tank inventory of 53,000 consisted of older, although still highly potent, T-54/55 and T-62 tanks.

SovietEraMuseum present a few photos about Soviet tank troops:

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1970-s’ – The “Goden years” of Soviet Red Army. Soviet sham fight “Shield-76″ and “North”  photos from the SovietEraMuseum archive:

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Mamayev Kurgan is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in USSR. The name in Russian means “tumulus of Mamai”.

The original Mamayev Kurgan was a Tartar burial mound 102 metres high. The current formation is dominated by a memorial complex commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 to February 1943). The battle was a decisive Soviet victory over Axis forces on the Eastern front of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history. At the time of its installation in 1967 the statue named The Motherland Calls formed the largest free-standing sculpture in the world. When forces of the German Sixth Army launched their attack against the city centre of Stalingrad on 13 September 1942, Mamayev Kurgan (appearing in military maps as “Height 102.0″) saw particularly fierce fighting between the German attackers and the defending soldiers of the Soviet 62nd Army. Control of the hill became vitally important, as it offered control over the city. To defend it, the Soviets had built strong defensive lines on the slopes of the hill, composed of trenches, barbed-wire and minefields. The Germans pushed forward against the hill, taking heavy casualties. When they finally captured the hill, they started firing on the city centre, as well as on the city’s main railway station under the hill. They captured the railway station on 14 September 1942. After the war, the Soviet authorities commissioned the enormous Mamayev Kurgan memorial complex. Vasily Chuikov, who led Soviet forces at Stalingrad, lies buried at Mamayev Kurgan, the first Marshal of the Soviet Union to be buried outside Moscow.

SovietEraMuseum present unique photos and postcards about Mamayev Kurgan:

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During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. In this period, the Soviet Union launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 dogs. The actual number of dogs in space is smaller, as some dogs flew more than once. Most survived; the few that died were lost mostly through technical failures, according to the parameters of the test.

Belka (eng.”Whitey”) and Strelka (eng.”Arrow”) spent a day in Space aboard Korabl-Sputnik-2 (Sputnik 5) on August 19, 1960 before safely returning to Earth.

They were accompanied by a grey rabbit, 42 mice, 2 rats, flies and a number of plants and fungi. All passengers survived. They were the first Earth-born creatures to go into orbit and return alive.

Strelka went on to have six puppies with a male dog named Pushok who participated in many ground-based space experiments, but never made it into space. One of the pups was named Pushinka and was presented to President John F. Kennedy’s daughter Caroline by Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. A Cold War romance bloomed between Pushinka and a Kennedy dog named Charlie resulting in the birth of 4 pups that JFK referred to jokingly as pupniks. Two of their pups, Butterfly and Streaker were given away to children in the Midwest. The other two puppies, White Tips and Blackie, stayed at the Kennedy home on Squaw Island but were eventually given away to family friends.Pushinka’s descendants are still living today.

SovietEraMuseum exclusive. Original soviet postcards with Belka and Strelka.

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During the Soviet era, the Red Square maintained its significance, becoming a focal point for the new state. Besides being the official address of the Soviet government, it was renowned as a showcase for military parades from 1919 onward. Lenin’s Mausoleum would from 1924 onward be a part of the square complex, and also as the grandstand for important dignitaries in all national celebrations.

Exclusive. SovietEraMuseum present photo postcards with Revolution 1917, Lenin’s Mausoleum,  Maxim Gorky and other key figures & events  related with Red Square in Moscow.

Collection from the SovietEraMuseum archive:

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