Mamayev Kurgan is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in USSR. The name in Russian means “tumulus of Mamai”.
The original Mamayev Kurgan was a Tartar burial mound 102 metres high. The current formation is dominated by a memorial complex commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 to February 1943). The battle was a decisive Soviet victory over Axis forces on the Eastern front of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history. At the time of its installation in 1967 the statue named The Motherland Calls formed the largest free-standing sculpture in the world. When forces of the German Sixth Army launched their attack against the city centre of Stalingrad on 13 September 1942, Mamayev Kurgan (appearing in military maps as “Height 102.0”) saw particularly fierce fighting between the German attackers and the defending soldiers of the Soviet 62nd Army. Control of the hill became vitally important, as it offered control over the city. To defend it, the Soviets had built strong defensive lines on the slopes of the hill, composed of trenches, barbed-wire and minefields. The Germans pushed forward against the hill, taking heavy casualties. When they finally captured the hill, they started firing on the city centre, as well as on the city’s main railway station under the hill. They captured the railway station on 14 September 1942. After the war, the Soviet authorities commissioned the enormous Mamayev Kurgan memorial complex. Vasily Chuikov, who led Soviet forces at Stalingrad, lies buried at Mamayev Kurgan, the first Marshal of the Soviet Union to be buried outside Moscow.
SovietEraMuseum present unique photos and postcards about Mamayev Kurgan:
During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. In this period, the Soviet Union launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 dogs. The actual number of dogs in space is smaller, as some dogs flew more than once. Most survived; the few that died were lost mostly through technical failures, according to the parameters of the test.
Belka (eng.”Whitey”) and Strelka (eng.”Arrow”) spent a day in Space aboard Korabl-Sputnik-2 (Sputnik 5) on August 19, 1960 before safely returning to Earth.
They were accompanied by a grey rabbit, 42 mice, 2 rats, flies and a number of plants and fungi. All passengers survived. They were the first Earth-born creatures to go into orbit and return alive.
Strelka went on to have six puppies with a male dog named Pushok who participated in many ground-based space experiments, but never made it into space. One of the pups was named Pushinka and was presented to President John F. Kennedy’s daughter Caroline by Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. A Cold War romance bloomed between Pushinka and a Kennedy dog named Charlie resulting in the birth of 4 pups that JFK referred to jokingly as pupniks. Two of their pups, Butterfly and Streaker were given away to children in the Midwest. The other two puppies, White Tips and Blackie, stayed at the Kennedy home on Squaw Island but were eventually given away to family friends.Pushinka’s descendants are still living today.
SovietEraMuseum exclusive. Original soviet postcards with Belka and Strelka.
During the Soviet era, the Red Square maintained its significance, becoming a focal point for the new state. Besides being the official address of the Soviet government, it was renowned as a showcase for military parades from 1919 onward. Lenin’s Mausoleum would from 1924 onward be a part of the square complex, and also as the grandstand for important dignitaries in all national celebrations.
Exclusive. SovietEraMuseum present photo postcards with Revolution 1917, Lenin’s Mausoleum, Maxim Gorky and other key figures & events related with Red Square in Moscow.
Collection from the SovietEraMuseum archive:
The Organising Committee working jointly with Plakat Publishers carried through a programme of publishing Olympic posters. TV viewers saw the first two posters in the final broadcasts from the Games in Montreal. Well-known Soviet artists and photographers were among the designers of the Olympic posters.
The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. Although its armour and armament were surpassed by later tanks of the era, it has been often credited as the most effective, efficient and influential design of World War II.First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II, and widely exported afterwards. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series.
Unique cards and stamps about T-34 and other soviet tanks. Only in the SovietEraMuseum!
The term “Siberia” has a long history. Its meaning has gradually changed during ages. Historically, Siberia was defined as the whole part of Russia to the east of Ural Mountains, including the Russian Far East. According to this definition, Siberia extended eastward from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific coast, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the border of Russian Central Asia and the national borders of both Mongolia and China.
Siberia in photos and postcards from the SovietEraMuseum archive:
SovietEraMuseum present art photos by Yuri Sadovnikov:
Budi porcelain factory (since 1867) . Current products ceramic (porcelain) products for household and decorative ceramics. Products are high quality and artistic execution. In the production method used stamped decoration, as well as hand-painted. Soviet time – the “golden years” of the Budi porcelain factory. In now days the plant was fully destroyed. Photo by http://www.excurskharkov.narod.ru/1/budy.htm
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvian SSR.
SovietEraMuseum present a few photos from own archive about Soviet Riga.
The Leningrad Metro is the underground railway system in Leningrad and Leningrad Oblast. It has been open since November 15, 1955. The system exhibits many typical Soviet designs and features exquisite decorations and artwork making it one of the most attractive and elegant metros in the world. Due to the city’s unique geology, the Saint Petersburg Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world and the deepest by the average depth of all the stations. The system’s deepest station, Admiralteyskaya, is 105 metres below ground. Serving two and a half million passengers daily, it is also the 12th busiest subway system in the world. n 1946 ‘Lenmetroproekt’ was created, under the leadership of M A Samodurov, to finish the construction of the metro first phase. New version of the metro project, devised by specialists, identified two new solutions to the problems to be encountered during the metro construction.
SovietEraMuseum present unique postcards aboul Leningrad subway system: